In the Middle Ages the territory of the Gorodok region was part of the Polotsk Principality and since the 14th century – the Great Principality of Lithuania. In the region there were a lot of powerful fortifications as it was located on the borderline. During the war between the Great Principality of Lithuania and Russia the castle on the peninsula of Ezerische Lake was destroyed several times and was renovated again. Finally, the Ezerische castle was destroyed in the 17th century. The town of Gorodok was first mentioned in 1579. After the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in 1772 Gorodok became part of the Russian Empire. In 1777, Gorodok became the centre of the Gorodok uyezd of the Polotsk province, 1796 – the Belarusian and since 1802 – the Vitebsk provinces. In 1860, the population of the region was 4075 people.
On October 26, 1917, the Soviet power was established. After the revolution and the civic war, residents of the region started to restore and develop the national economy, to hold social transformations in agriculture.
During World War II, in the Gorodok region, the Nazis killed more than 16 thousand people, destroyed 183 villages including 13 villages which were burnt together with their inhabitants. Around 20 thousand Soviet soldiers died liberating the Gorodok region from the Nazis.
The memorial compound “Immortality” dedicated to heroes of the Great Patriotic War was erected in the central square of Gorodok. Some 1345 Soviet soldiers who liberated the Gorodok region were buried there. There are 137 monuments and obelisks in honour of the memory of those who died liberating the region.